Monday, July 29, 2019

Things To Do This Weekend In London: 27-28 July 2019

The activities this weekend are sponsored by Floatworks.

Every weekend

The Ealing Jazz Festival takes place throughout the weekend

SCHOOL HOLIDAYS: If the children do not go to school for the foreseeable future, our family-friendly summer guide in London will give you opportunities to keep busy during the holidays. We have shown exhibitions, theater shows, day trips, cheap things and restaurants as a family.

FIESTA DE MEXICO: The cultural traditions of Mexico come to the Square Mile for the free three-day Fiesta de Mexico. Wander the street stalls and listen to a mariachi band, watch a Lucha Libre show or join family-friendly activities. Guildhall Yard, free entry (some events cost and must be booked), just turn up, 26th-28th July

Rain or shine: Theater Deli hosts Rain or Shine, a weekend of cultural events for all ages, from gardening to poetry, to BMX taster classes that encourage everyone to go outside. Burgess Park, different prices, book in advance, 27th-28th July

Little Gardeners is part of the Rain or Shine Festival

EALING JAZZ FESTIVAL: Two days of live jazz music come to West London for the Ealing Jazz Festival. Both days feature artists from all over the UK and beyond. Our choice, however, is Sunday, when Ronnie Scott's line-up is curated to mark the legendary jazz club's 60th birthday. Walpole Park, £ 5.50 - £ 11, book in advance, 27th-28th July

ICE WEEKEND: The Swiss ice cream entrepreneur and ice cream inventor Carlo Gatto would have turned 202 this weekend. The London Canal Museum - home of a Victorian ice house - celebrates with a birthday party that includes a cake contest, family activities and a music evening. London Canal Museum (King's Cross), different prices, book in advance, 27th-28th July

ILLUSTRATION EXHIBITION: Last chance to see this year's World Illustrations Awards exhibition featuring all 200 works shortlisted for this year's awards. The contributions range from book covers to newspapers and packaging to murals with contributions from various countries. Somerset House, free, just show up, until the 28th of July

Sponsor message

Float in a salty pod of Epsom to inner peace

Stress of city life brings you down? Would you like to find a completely new way to recharge your body and mind? Try Fleet Therapy with London's leading Fleet Center. Floatworks & Sensory Deprivation Pods provide an incredibly liberating experience of weightlessness - and more and more Londoners are awakened by their benefits.

Here's how it works: The water in each of the state-of-the-art Floatworks I-Sopod floating tanks contains half a ton of Epsom salts, making it easy to swim. This, along with the lack of sensory distractions, helps you to relax your muscles and achieve a deep state of serenity. Floating followers report less anxiety, improved sleep, and many other benefits. Some even use it as a tool to explore their consciousness.

If that has aroused your curiosity, now is the time to take the plunge. To celebrate the launch of its second center in Angel, Floatworks offers you a package of three floats for just £ 105 - a savings of £ 15 per session. Hurry up - you only have until 31st July to take advantage of this introductory offer. And if you want to be the first to see Floatworks Angel's state-of-the-art facilities, do not miss the open house this Saturday.

Saturday, July 27th

A pop-up dog market is coming to Chelsea

Gnomus: Look for a giant gnome that wanders through the area of ​​Tower Bridge - Gnomus is at large. The giant doll is the work of Puppets With Guts and has an important message: It checks every leaf and flower in the area to inspire a new generation of conservationists. Potters Field Park and St. John's Churchyard (Tower Bridge), for free, just pop up, 11-16 clock

DOGS MARKET: Pamper your puppy at the Chelsea Pop-Up Dog Market. Toys, treats, coats and collars for canines are just some of the items, and the first 50 dogs that come through the door get a free gift bag. St. Luke's Church Hall (Chelsea), free (charitable donations welcome), 11-18 clock

CATTLE: Three music stages, three bars, children's activities and food stalls stand against the backdrop of Forty Hall Farm at the Livestock Festival. The focus is on supporting and promoting local talent, and the one-day, laid-back festival is a great way to introduce children to the festival scene. Forty Hall (Enfield), £ 5- £ 30, book in advance, 11 to 23 o'clock

Gnomus comes to life near Tower Bridge

BREWERY MEETING: The Geffrye Museum may be closed for refurbishment, but you can still drink one or two pints in its gardens. Hackney Brewery celebrates its 8th anniversary with an outdoor party featuring craft beers from 10 breweries, street food, lifestyle booths and community, food and drink conversations. Geffrye Museum (Hoxton), from £ 15, book in advance, 12-16-16-21 clock

COMEDY ALL DAYER: Comedy Grotto is hosting an epic lineup by Gagstern for the Edinburgh Fringe Preview Fest. The time is running out for Tom Rosenthal, Sara Kendall, Suzi Ruffell and Olga Koch to tighten their performances before heading off to the Scottish capital. Star of Kings, £ 25, book in advance, 12.30-23.00

BUTTERFLY EFFECT: House, garage and Afro Beats music are the focus of The Butterfly Effect, a festival that takes place on three stages in Croydon. DJ Hatcha, Pied Piper, DJ Sollie with MC DT, Maxwell D and PSG play the garage stage, while Rhythm N Funk leads the house stage with Supa D, Kismet, Dominic Danielle, Petite, MA1 and Carlos Aries, Shenin Amara, Sef Kombo , Tippa, Jrome, Gemini and Coldsteps. Lloyd Park (Croydon), £ 35, book in advance, 13-22 clock

Hackney Brewery's Summer Session at the Geffrye Museum

NASHVILLE MEETS LONDON: Canary Wharf's Nashville Meets London country music festival features stage performances by British and American artists in the open air. Embark on the park and see Lauren Alaina of American Idol and Twinnie, the country star in the West End. Canada Square Park (Canary Wharf), free, just show up, 14-22 clock

SILVER SCREEN SCI-FI: Get ready for a screening of First Man's 2018 film in which Ryan Gosling plays astronaut Neil Armstrong in a retelling of his moon landing story. The film is preceded by an introduction by television presenter Dallas Campbell, which features a replica of Armstrong's suit created by Ryan Nagata, an artist who worked on the film. Royal Observatory (Greenwich), £ 12 / £ 10.80 / £ 6, book in advance, 18.30 to 21.30

AFRICAN MUSIC: The best African music in the capital will be presented at the Focus Africa Music Festival. Expect afrobeat / afro-funk / afro-jazz from Femi and The InRhythms and other artists as well as a free drum and balafon workshop. Rich Mix (Shoreditch), £ 12.50, book in advance, 19 o'clock

Nashville meets London in Canary Wharf

Sunday, July 28th

Wolf Hall: If you've ever read or seen Wolf Hall, plunge into London's real-time Tudor settings on this guided walk. Due to the big fire, not many Tudor buildings have been preserved, but this tour will visit you with lots of information about the actual events in the Wolfshalle that you share with others on the way. Blackfriars Station, £ 12 / £ 9, book in advance, 12-14 o'clock

OPERA OPEN DAY: The London Opera Summer Theater Opera Holland Park opens its doors for a free family day. Get creative with creative workshops, conversations with performers, and members of the production team to get a better picture of how the opera works - and try conducting the City of London Sinfonia. Opera Holland Park, free, just show up, 12-17 clock

BAND STAND MUSIC: Come to Regent's Park and enjoy an afternoon of free live music as part of the Summer Music Festival. It takes place at the music pavilion against the background of the lake and sun loungers can be rented. Regent's Park, free, just show up, 12.30-17.30

Fiesta de Mexico is at the Guildhall Yard all weekend

PINK JUKEBOX: Members of the LGBT + community and their friends are invited to The Pink Jukebox, an afternoon full of ballroom and Latin American dance. Start with a beginners dance class followed by a social dance. Bishopsgate Institute, £ 12 / £ 10, book in advance, 14 o'clock

EARTH: Several billion tons of earth are moved by humans every year - with shovels, excavators or dynamite. The people who are moving are the subject of the new Austrian documentary Earth, which meets workers from America, Italy and Hungary. Some are proud of what they do while others do not understand why they do it. Bertha DocHouse (Bloomsbury), £ 9 / £ 7 / £ 5, book in advance, 4 pm

YOUNG MUSICIANS: The trumpeter James Davison, who was honored as a young jazz musician of the year, celebrates his victory with a live performance of various musicians, including Sam Rapley (saxophone), Rob Barron (piano) and Misha Mullov-Abbado (bass). Expect a selection of jazz standards and some originals. 606 Club (Chelsea), £ 12, book in advance, 8:15 pm

xxx video download

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Amadou and Mariam; the Blind Boys of Alabama overview – soulfulvitality | Music

TIt was a rousing and interesting mating that could possibly be extra attention-grabbing than cleverly packaged nostalgia. In spite of everything, right here have been skilled musicians from Africa and the USA with remarkably related tales. Mali's best-selling couple Amadou and Mariam met in 1975 on the sandy grounds of the Bamako Institute for the Blind, whereas the unique solid of specialists in gospel concord, the Blind Boys of Alabama, gathered at 5 pm on the finish of the 1930s Talladega Institute for Negro Blind. Each have been internationally profitable and each have been closely influenced by R & B.

First up was the Blind Boys, whose final unique member, Jimmy Carter, was born in 1929 and nonetheless has a wonderful, soulful voice. They centered on the enthusiastic revival of previous classics, from Individuals Get Able to Superb Grace, and have been supported by their very own guitarist Joey Williams and the drummer and bass / ngoni participant of Amadou and Mariams Band.

Enthusiastic about the blind from Alabama.

Enthusiastic in regards to the blind from Alabama. Photograph: Alecsandra Raluca Drăgoi / The Guardian

This energetic trio additionally supplied help for Amadou and Mariam's set, which included Sabali and Dimanche à Bamako, and was notable for Amadous-inspired guitar solos. Working with a small group and with out keyboards positively suited him.

The highlights have been the six collaborations, which included two new songs - the completely happy Bamako to Birmingham and Two Cultures, One Beat - and a gospel that harmonizes with Welcome to Mali. Better of all, Carter's highly effective solo remedy of the Tom Waits tune Down within the Gap was mixed with considerate and impressed guitar work by Amadou. Should you can develop such robust songs, it's a partnership that's value persevering with.

 On the Cambridge Folks Competition on August 4th and at Usher Corridor in Edinburgh on August seventh


Wednesday, May 1, 2019

The Web - THE Finest Place to Study English


  1. The primacy of the doorway

  2. Vocabulary on grammar

  3. Study in items

  4. Higher Web tutors

  5. Vital communication

  6. Motivation and pleasure

  7. Effectivity

English is the dominant language of the web. The Web will in flip develop into the dominant place to study English. The best way languages ​​are realized is altering, and these modifications are accelerating.

Web is consistently altering. He created a dynamic setting for communication and data administration. Web has introduced new types of social interplay with out borders. Applied sciences reminiscent of MP3, iPod, Skype and PDA, in addition to blogs and podcasts, provide all kinds of content material for communication, info, literature, information and different languages ​​obtainable wherever, anytime . A cascade of developments causes the creation of interactive communities primarily based on widespread pursuits, no matter geography. This may divert the training of a conventional language. English dominates the Web in areas starting from leisure to science. If you wish to study English, this represents an unprecedented alternative.

You'll be able to entry English content material on any subject and study from it. You'll be able to join with anglophones who share your pursuits. You are able to do it by e-mail, via blogs, podcasts and boards. You'll be able to join with pals and even language academics utilizing free web telephony. The World Extensive Net is the last word studying and dynamic class group.

Over the subsequent few years, the Web will succeed the category as a favourite place to study English. Listed here are a few of the causes.

The primacy of the doorway

If you wish to study English or one other language, you want a major, significant contribution to your degree. In the present day, language studying consultants give attention to outcomes, listening and studying quite than grammar. Earlier than you need to use the language, you have to get used to the language. You do not want to rush to talk English and you don't want to talk it on a regular basis to enhance your self.

"The precise acquisition of language is growing slowly and oral expertise come a lot later than listening expertise, even when circumstances are good. The very best strategies are subsequently people who present "comprehensible enter" in uncomfortable conditions, containing messages that college students actually need to hear. the strategies don't drive early manufacturing within the second language, however enable college students to provide when they're "prepared", recognizing that the development comes from offering a communicative and comprehensible enter, and never forcing and correction of manufacturing. "Stephen Krashen.

While you realized your personal language whenever you have been a toddler, you didn't begin speaking. You began by listening. New language learners can profit from a "interval of silence". Through the "silence interval" you'll be able to soak up the language. You do not want to drive your self to speak till you might be assured. Even if you're an intermediate learner, studying and listening deeply will improve your language expertise, enrich your vocabulary and construct your self-confidence. That is extra useful than finding out grammar.

Though listening and studying typically and often are important, the content material have to be significant. The educational content material have to be attention-grabbing and comprehensible to you. Because of this you, not the trainer, should select what you need to study. Web permits limitless selection of fascinating and genuine content material. The normal guide cannot compete.

Motivated learners spent their time in bookstores in search of content material that will assist them of their language research. Nevertheless, a lot of this materials might inevitably be discovered solely in uninteresting textbooks and readers. However immediately, genuine content material on quite a lot of matters is only a click on away. That is particularly the case for the one who needs to study English.

This vary of supplies is accessible to learners as a result of new methods can consider difficulties in a customized manner in accordance with your vocabulary. You'll be able to study English by listening to and studying matters that curiosity you and you'll not discover that troublesome.

Vocabulary on grammar

With a view to grasp completely English, you have to grasp no less than 10,000 phrases. On the Web, you'll be able to select the suitable content material to hearken to and skim. The content material may be categorised at your degree. However what about studying and remembering all these new phrases. We all know how briskly we neglect phrases once we seek for them in a dictionary. And there are such a lot of phrases to study. Thankfully, the Web makes studying vocabulary loads simpler.

On the Web, you need to use on-line dictionaries to seek for phrases immediately (for instance, Babylon). There are studying software program applications that create customized phrase lists as you study phrases. This software program might help you accumulate pattern sentences for these phrases within the acquainted contexts you hearken to and skim. You'll be able to set vocabulary targets and monitor your progress in direction of these targets.

The Web lets you effectively accumulate vocabulary primarily based on a residing and attention-grabbing linguistic content material, tailored to your wants. This mixture of vocabulary studying effectivity and limitless content material is simply one of many the explanation why the Web will develop into the place to study English.

Study in items

Vocabulary doesn't simply imply phrases. It additionally means phrases or items of phrases. Phrases are teams of phrases that come collectively in a pure manner for the native speaker however not all the time for the learner. Michael Lewis was one of many pioneers in mentioning that you're studying a language in items, or lexical expressions. Web and pc make this simpler.

On the pc, you'll be able to retrieve language items when you hear and skim, and accumulate them in an easy-to-use database. Phrases and items of language may be linked to bigger contexts, that are already acquainted to you. You do not want to depend on dictionary definitions and reminiscence by coronary heart. You'll be able to evaluation these language fragments as quick fragments, sentences, and in a bigger context you could hearken to and skim many instances.

On this manner, you regularly develop an instinctive sense of how phrases are used. That is the pure approach to discover ways to use correctly. It's simpler than making an attempt to memorize and apply grammar guidelines.

As you develop your confidence in English via common typing and studying of phrases and phrases, you'll in all probability need to communicate to native audio system. Once more, the Web is the perfect setting, providing extra alternatives than the classroom.

Higher tutors on the Web

Web connects people who find themselves in search of one another. A fast search on just a few skilled web sites will find writers, editors or English-speaking professionals from around the globe focused on enjoying the function of tutors and language coaches. If you wish to study English, you'll be able to commerce with this distinctive pool of certified folks with a variety of expertise and information.

You do not want academics with specialised linguistic levels if you wish to study English on the Web. The brand new studying paradigm doesn't require that academics be educated within the particulars of instructing grammar and languages. The necessary {qualifications} for an Web tutor are: an curiosity in folks, a capability to make use of one's mom tongue and a wealthy expertise to share with English learners.

On the Web, you'll be able to select the tutor whose focus and pursuits match yours.

Vital communication

Applied sciences reminiscent of Skype facilitate the group of conversations through a pc. Communication is free. You'll be able to meet your pals to speak or make an appointment with a tutor.

It's like having lessons on demand. You'll be able to schedule one-on-one or one-to-one chats through Skype with the tutor of your selection. You'll be able to invite your pals to affix you or make new pals from totally different nations and cultures. Tutors solely want to supply recommendation and encouragement, in addition to feedback, at your comfort. You do not want grammar directions or questionnaires since you are studying the language naturally via your typing actions.

Within the enjoyable environment of on-line discussions on the Web, learners and tutors develop into pals and kind a group of people that assist and encourage them. These aren't annoying classes. These are nice alternatives to speak. You'll be able to file these conversations or produce your personal oral checks and archive or share them. On this manner, you'll be able to monitor your progress whereas studying English on the Web.

To truly enhance your expression accuracy, you will need to write. The correction of written texts may be effectively organized on the Web and built-in along with your typing and dialog actions. Techniques can hold a everlasting file of your authentic texts and corrected texts. These information might embody particulars in regards to the nature of your errors and the tutor's notes. Tutors could make audio recordings of your corrected writing to be able to hearken to them, to strengthen the training of the corrected sentences. The writing can go from informal writing for a weblog to severe educational essays.

Motivation and pleasure

Studying on the Web is efficient as a result of it's enjoyable. Web avoids the stress and tedium of the category and will increase your motivation. You select the content material, the vocabulary is straightforward to study, the progress is measured continuously and you might be a part of a group.

There are already communities of bloggers with learners and mentors sharing their experiences. Folks from around the globe come collectively to assist one another. Bloggers can publish in their very own language or in English. English turns into the medium of communication between folks of various cultural backgrounds. Running a blog just isn't a activity, however an genuine, fulfilling and significant exercise. Contagious enthusiasm will provide help to study. It's not like finding out. It's extra like making new pals and discovering new cultures via the language.


Web introduces a better degree of effectivity in language studying. Effectivity is important as a result of it creates depth. It takes a number of depth to develop into a speaker fluent in one other language.

There may be additionally another excuse why effectivity is necessary. You could have the suitable to leverage your funding in money and time in language studying. If you wish to study English, effectivity is necessary, however it's typically ignored within the instructing of conventional languages.

"I spent greater than 14 months finding out English in a college - it was a waste of cash for the Canadian authorities and a waste of time for me." Humberto Soto, a current immigrant to Canada.

Conventional classroom strategies aren't as efficient because the Web. It's troublesome to satisfy the wants of learners of various ranges and pursuits. Stress and tedium are sometimes the outcomes. Many individuals are discouraged by their faculty expertise and find yourself being satisfied that they cannot study to talk a brand new language fluently. They lose curiosity and quit.

For many who need to study English, the web opens up a brand new world of efficient and satisfying language studying. Web permits high quality and quite a lot of contributions that far exceed the sources of a conventional classroom. Studying strategies and communication prospects can be found on the Web, which the category cannot match. Targets may be set and outcomes measured. The result's a extremely built-in and fulfilling studying setting.

This new studying methodology appeals to all ages. Whereas youth and college students are probably the most avid Web customers, in accordance with the Kaiser Household Basis, 70% of People aged 55 to 64 use the Web! Related traits are noticed in Europe and Asia.

Notice: A printable model (PDF) and a podcast (MP3) can be found on our web site.

Studying a Language: 6 Efficient Methods to Use the Web

There are a lot of methods to be taught a brand new language: You possibly can settle in a rustic the place the language is spoken, attend an official language course, use a personal tutor, or use books and written supplies. It's also possible to be taught a international language by listening to CDs or audio tapes, watching TV, motion pictures and video packages, memorizing phrase books, utilizing the Web, or combining all of those.

However not everybody can organize to reside abroad. Native audio system of the language is probably not obtainable. Written or recorded business media is probably not obtainable within the language you have an interest in (Cochimi, Cibemba or Kukapa, do you thoughts?) True, many main languages ​​equivalent to Spanish, French, German, Portuguese and Portuguese . Even Koreans, Catalans, Arabs and Japanese have rooms obtainable in cosmopolitan areas all over the world; however the overwhelming majority of the hundreds of languages ​​spoken on this planet are merely not fleeing outdoors their area. So what ought to a polyglot future do?

One reply is in fact the Web. Plug in international language programs & # 148; in an Web search engine equivalent to Google or Yahoo, and greater than 62 million visits had been recorded immediately. From Afrikaans to Punjabi and Hebrew to Zulu, hundreds of adverts are in entrance of you on the click on of a mouse. How, then, to make use of the Web to be taught a international language? Begin successfully utilizing these six strategies:

1. Make an preliminary evaluation

The very first thing chances are you'll wish to know is the place you're within the language studying program. An preliminary evaluation of language abilities is so as; Are you a newbie? False newbie? Intermediate degree? Increased? Let's take English as a second or international language. English Proficiency Testing is free on-line at:

& # 149; Basic English check with prompt outcomes

& # 149; Parlo

(diagnostic assessments in English, Spanish and French)

& # 149; Higher intermediate check

In case your rating is over 80%, you have to take the following check and in addition present your trainer or tutor a replica of the outcomes.

2. Change into acquainted with language studying methods

How do you be taught? Figuring out this, the arduous process of international language studying could also be much less comparable to check and extra to the sport. Are you a visible & # 150; A spatial learner who loves photos, drawings, graphics and intensive use of colour? A musical & # 150; A rhythmic kind that may profit from having your classes and materials set to music, rhythm or rhyme? It might be the sporting kind that may be extra profitable with studying by way of motion, motion, mime and even dance. It has been proven that taking part in Mozart's works within the background whereas finding out improves studying in quite a few areas. To be taught extra about your technique to be taught, go to these websites to get began:

& # 149; Rationalization of studying kinds []

& # 149; Questionnaire on the index of studying kinds []

& # 149; The fashion indicator of studying Kinds of Success []

3. Studying observe

Literacy is without doubt one of the most useful composite abilities of the 21st century. In spite of everything, you're studying CE now, just isn't it? Few wish to be illiterate of their new international language, so the observe of studying is paramount. On-line newspapers, magazines, newsletters and blogs can present the mandatory observe and studying supplies. Uncover these websites of studying comprehension abilities:

& # 149; Methods to learn your guide extra successfully


& # 149; Self-study studying course

& # 149; Learn the article on the following handle:


On the following handle, reply the questionnaire to test your

understanding of the studying passage:


4. Assist in growing listening abilities

Thought-about as essentially the most troublesome language ability to develop, listening cannot be taught. Quite the opposite, it's a must to observe, observe, observe after which observe a bit of extra. Each week, twice per week, I met a road vendor in the identical place, completely unaware of what he was saying. I knew what he was promoting & # 150; I simply had a take a look at his articles. However his prayers in Spanish road fell on my ears clogged by the tongue for months. Then one night, with out warning, it occurred. Simply two days earlier than, her tears had been the identical incomprehensible phrases they'd for months. That night, nevertheless, when he began his good friend's race, I abruptly understood each phrase. My listening abilities had change into apparent. Why then? No person is aware of. Particularly not me, and I'm a specialist in postgraduate language training!

Prepare your self with radio broadcasts in your goal language for a change on, which broadcasts reside worldwide programming 24 hours a day in a number of languages.

A international language web radio and a international information radio in 27 European international locations, Four Center Japanese international locations, 9 Asian languages ​​and audio sources from 19 African international locations can be found at: com / online-radio.html

5. Play and have enjoyable

The vocabulary is commonly known as the constituent parts of language. Vocabulary data is a facet that separates the training ranges of a language. The extra vocabulary you already know, the extra communicative you're. Listed below are some distinctive language websites that show you how to construct your language while you play:

& # 149; The web site gives fascinating issues for ESL college students & # 148; like songs, jokes, quizzes, phrase video games, riddles, slang and even podcasts to assist stimulate the acquisition of the English language.

& # 149; The positioning of the international language course at:

has actions in 27 languages, together with Finnish, Mandarin and Quechua.

& # 149; On Clear Language, you may play video games in additional than 100 languages, from Afrikaans to Farsi or Guarani to Yoruba. And sure, in addition they have Zulu. Take a look at all their listings right here: games/

6. So what language tickles your fantasy?

Though the collection of language programs, tutorials, information feed, music and different audio content material & # 150; The web visible materials is huge, ALL languages ​​of the world are merely not obtainable. Sorry. However there are lots of who know learn how to discover yours when he's on-line.

& # 149; 108 FREE on-line language programs are posted at:

& # 149; The PARLO language web site gives programs in English, French Spanish and Italian on the following handle: []

& # 149; The E. L. Easton Language Institute gives 14 languages ​​on-line, from Albanian to Japanese, Latin to Croatian, Russian and Spanish. The positioning is on-line on the following handle:

& # 149; A plethora of language studying actions for the World Broad Net are on-line for the sensible actions of the College of Hawaii right here: []

Though the Web is probably not the entire reply to all of your international language studying wants, it could however show to be an excellent useful resource to your efforts in habla español, to talk French or to sprechenze Deutcsh. The status, the monetary good points, the private satisfaction, the envy and the alternatives that usually come up from the data of a international language are unparalleled. Why not begin at this time to attempt a few of these efficient methods of utilizing the Web to be taught a language. You'll want to learn the associated article "Six Ideas for Studying a Language" and # 147; On: By the best way, when you discover Cochimi, Cibemba or Kukapa, please let me know. I'm nonetheless on the lookout for.

Situation of English in Bangladesh: Second Language or International Language

The mom tongue or mom tongue is probably the costliest factor for anybody. The language concern has led to many conflicts and discontent. The 1952 language motion in Bangladesh is the perfect instance of this discontent. Alternatively, we can't dwell in isolation. We should keep up a correspondence with audio system of different languages. Bangladesh is taken into account a monolingual nation by which over 98% of the inhabitants speaks Bengali. Nevertheless, there are greater than ten languages ​​in a rustic as small as Bangladesh. Monipuri, Urdu, Chakma, Santali, Garo, Rakhain and Tipra are simply a number of the different languages ​​in Bangladesh.

The fascinating factor is that Urdu is an Indo-European language however written in Arabic, Santali belongs to the Mono-Khemar language household whereas Chakma belongs to the Chinese language-Burmese language group. Thus, though Bangladesh is commonly introduced as a rustic of linguistic union based mostly on the Bangladeshi language, it has a exceptional linguistic range. To speak with audio system of different languages, we should both know their language or talk in a Lingua-Franca comprehensible for each of us.

As we speak, the world has grow to be a worldwide village. Because of the development of the communication system and expertise. Every nation relies on others for commerce, training, politics, and so forth. We should subsequently talk always with different international locations and audio system of different languages. Third world international locations like Bangladesh should rely on international support as a result of they don't seem to be self-sufficient. Because of this, many foreigners come to Bangladesh. A 3rd issue is the issue of faith. The sacred language of Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for Hindus, Pali for Buddhists and Latin for Christians.

All of those elements remind us of the necessity to study different languages ​​along with our native language. In keeping with this actuality, many international locations on the earth have adopted a European language as a second language, which is commonly utilized in training, courts, financial actions and public works. These languages ​​have more often than not an official standing within the structure of those international locations. In lots of circumstances, international locations have adopted the language of their former colonial leaders as a second language. Generally these languages ​​are additionally referred to as official languages. In lots of African international locations we will see this image. Alternatively, some European languages ​​have grow to be essential on the earth for literary and financial functions. For instance, German and French are thought-about essential languages ​​of the world as a result of literature and economics are related to them.

For instance, many individuals in our nation wish to study French as a result of it may possibly assist them get jobs within the UN and jobs in multinational firms. One other fascinating motivation for studying French in Bangladesh is that it may possibly assist us immigrate to Canada, as a result of fluency in French offers an individual a number of further factors within the level system of Canadian immigration.

The title of my analysis is "Standing of English in Bangladesh: Second Language or International Language?" I selected this subject as a result of from a sociolinguistic viewpoint, the standing of English may be very fascinating. On one facet, the English language is dominant in all elements of our nationwide life, whereas on the opposite facet of our structure, it's clearly said that the language of the nation is Bangla. In truth, nothing is claimed in regards to the standing of the English language in our structure. On the one hand, financial actions in non-public firms are carried out in English whereas there's a authorities regulation (Bangla procholon ain1987) in keeping with which authorities places of work should use Bangla of their official works. From the federal government's viewpoint, Bengali is the official language of Bangladesh and English is an important international language. However in actuality, English is the second language of the nation and, in lots of locations, English is extra essential than Bangla in Bangladesh.

Second language:

A second language is any language aside from the primary or the primary language discovered; it's typically used for geographical or social causes. The time period should be distinguished from a international language; The linguist Eric Lenneberg makes use of, in his speculation of important interval, a second language as a language discovered or used consciously by his speaker after puberty. Generally, folks by no means obtain the identical stage of proficiency and comprehension of their second language as of their mom tongue.

Traditionally in Europe, probably the most used second language (or lingua franca) was Latin. It has been utilized by the Church. by regulation (as it's nonetheless right this moment); in medication (beginning a lot later); Horticulture and organic classification of vegetation, animals, fruits, nuts, and many others.

Latin was so broadly used all through Europe that it was referred to as vulgar (or widespread language); that's the reason the Latin model of the Bible calls the Vulgate.

These days, English is taken into account the second most generally spoken language on the earth. It's utilized in fields as various because the Web, tv and radio and worldwide aviation.

The success of English world wide stems from two primary causes: the appreciable affect of the British empire and the dominance of the US (and the 20 th century) within the fields of enterprise and leisure.

French was for a time the lingua franca (the origin of the time period) in Europe. In historical past, England and France had been dominated by a single crown - the language utilized by the royal court docket was French (English was thought-about "the language of the peasant"). Then, as was the case with English, the French empire unfold its language by way of colonization. French continues to be one of the vital spoken languages ​​on the earth. (Supply: Wikipedia)

If we take a look at the second language definition, we will simply say that English is the second language of Bangladesh. It's broadly utilized in many components of our nationwide life. Many individuals watch English TV channels and likewise use the Web. College students should examine for twelve years and people wishing to affix the general public service by passing a BCS examination should additionally take an English examination. The one factor lacking from the above definition is the truth that, aside from formal events, nobody speaks English in Bangladesh. This isn't the language used at dwelling amongst members of the family and pals in casual conversations.

A international language:

A international language is a language that's not spoken by indigenous peoples of a sure place: for instance, English is a international language in Japan. Additionally it is a language that's not spoken within the dwelling nation of the meant particular person, that's, an English-speaking resident of Japan can say that Japanese is a international language for him.

Some youngsters study a couple of language at beginning or at a really younger age: they're bilingual. We are able to say that these youngsters have two mom tongues: no language is international to this youngster, even when a language is a international language for the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of his nation of beginning. For instance, in Japan, a baby who learns English by way of his English mom can converse English and Japanese, however she doesn't converse a international language both. (Supply- Wikipedia)

From the above definition, we see that international language refers to a language that's not native to an individual. From this viewpoint, English will be thought-about a international language in Bangladesh since it's not native to our nation. Just about no Bangladeshi speaks English though many use it within the fields of training and enterprise.

Official language:

An official language is a novel standing in international locations, states and different territories. It's typically the language used within the legislative our bodies of a rustic, though many international locations' regulation requires that authorities paperwork are additionally produced in different languages.

Formally acknowledged minority languages ​​are sometimes confused with official languages. Nevertheless, a language formally acknowledged by a state, taught in colleges and utilized in official communications is just not essentially an official language. For instance, Ladin and Sardinian in Italy and Mirandais in Portugal are solely formally acknowledged minority languages, and never official languages ​​within the strict sense.

Half of the world's international locations have official languages. Some have just one official language, corresponding to Albania, France or Lithuania, even if in all these international locations different mom tongues are additionally spoken. Some have a number of official languages, corresponding to Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa and Switzerland.

In some international locations, corresponding to Iraq, Italy, Russia and Spain, there may be an official language for the nation, however different languages ​​are co-official in some areas essential. Some international locations, corresponding to Australia, the US, Sweden and Tuvalu shouldn't have an official language.

The official languages ​​of some former colonies, normally French or English, are neither the nationwide languages ​​nor probably the most spoken language.

In distinction to nationalism, Irish is the "nationwide language" of the Republic of Eire and its first official language, though it's spoken solely by a small a part of its inhabitants. English, which is spoken by the bulk, is just described as a second official language (Structure of Eire, Article 8).

In some international locations, the query of which language must be used by which context is a serious political drawback. (Supply-Wikipedia)

From the definition above, we see that the notion of official language is difficult. In keeping with our structure, English can't be certified because the official language of Bangladesh since there is no such thing as a standing in our structure. The one language talked about in our structure is Bengali. However English is allowed in our parliament and in lots of authorities occasions. For instance, when there's a authorities occasion attended by some foreigners, audio system typically use English. Many essential authorities paperwork are written in Bengali and English. The work of Parliament takes place in these two languages. When a authorities company organizes a good, the memento is commonly printed in English.


Concerning the language of the nation, the Bangladesh Structure clearly states:

"The official language.

The official language of the Republic is [Bangla]. "

(Supply: [].)

Within the structure, nothing is talked about in regards to the standing of English. English is just not talked about as a second language or official language. So, if we take English standing in our structure, we can't fake that English is a second language or an official language in Bangladesh.

English in court docket in Bangladesh:

After independence, the federal government took the initiative to implement Bengali in court docket. Because of this, the decrease courts now function in Bangla, however English nonetheless exerts nice affect within the Excessive Court docket and the Supreme Court docket. If a lawyer needs to apply on the Supreme Court docket, he should grasp the English language. Many judges nonetheless pronounce their verdicts in English. Evidently this tendency to make use of English will stay for the longer term compelled.

English within the training sector in Bangladesh:

The formal and institutionalized instructional system started in Bangladesh below British rule. At the moment, Bangladesh was a part of British India. There was a debate on the medium of training. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium must be English fairly than Sanskrit or Persian. Throughout the British interval, the tutorial setting was largely in English. The College of Calcutta took the initiative in 1935 to introduce Bengali as a medium of instruction concurrently English. In Bangladesh, the usage of Bengali on the college stage started within the 1960s. College students can now take exams in Bengali or English. After 1971, on the school and college stage, the federal government tried to sponsor Bangla and implement it by changing English within the training sector, however this didn't occur due to basic issues. The primary drawback is that there have been not sufficient books of a website in Bengali. This drawback is extra acute in science and expertise. For instance, there may be nearly no guide in Bengali on laptop expertise that can be utilized as a reference work on the college stage.

In truth, there are three kinds of training techniques in our nation: Bengali, English and Madrasa. Center colleges in Bengali will be divided into two sections: public colleges and kindergartens. In nursery colleges, English is extra essential than in public colleges. Among the well-known nursery colleges in Dhaka are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Little Flower, and many others. Though these colleges belong to Bengali, college students should examine Three or Four books in English corresponding to: Radiant Method, Energetic English, Workplace Work, Elementary English, Grammar Brighter, and many others. Alternatively, in public colleges, there may be primarily an English for As we speak guide printed by Bangladesh Textual content E-book Board. English colleges don't comply with the Bangladeshi instructional system and are below the supervision of the British Council. The medium of instruction in these colleges is English and lots of English language college students are very weak within the Bangladeshi language. There are two kinds of Madrassas - Dakhil and Kawmi. Kawmi Madrassas should not acknowledged by the federal government and obtain no assist from the federal government. In these Madrassas, the main target is on studying Arabic, Persian and Urdu, whereas Bengali and English are uncared for. Alternatively, in Dakhil, madrassas emphasize Arabic, and Bengali and English should not uncared for.

Thus, we will clearly see that the distinction in training system in Bangladesh is predicated solely on the distinction of instructional setting. Though Bengali is the official nationwide language of Bangladesh, it's the English language instructional establishments that obtain more cash. The rise of personal universities has solely strengthened the standing and significance of the English language in Bangladesh. There are actually greater than 50 non-public universities in Bangladesh and English is their language of instruction. These universities cost 2 lakh to five lakh taka for Bachelor programs. If the center of training was in Bangla, then nearly no pupil or father or mother could be desirous about paying a lot cash for training in non-public universities.

The dialogue above clearly exhibits that in our system of common training, English has an significance equal, if not superior, to that of Bangla. In our academic system, English is actually the second language as a result of all college students should examine it as a obligatory topic for twelve years.

English and administration:

Throughout the linguistic motion, the folks of Bangladesh feared that if Urdu had been created because the official language of Pakistan, all authorities actions could be carried out in Urdu and our folks would endure. On account of the language motion, the Pakistani regime continued to conduct authorities actions in English. After the independence of Bangladesh, the Awami League authorities determined to interchange English with Bengali within the administrative work, however after the demise of Sheikh Mujib, the method stopped and English remained the language dominant. It was through the reign of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was created and carried out. From that second, English started to lose its significance within the administration. Nevertheless, it must be talked about that every one worldwide communications of the Authorities of Bangladesh are in English.

English in financial actions:

Bangladesh's economic system depends on international support and the export of some widespread objects corresponding to made-up garments, jute, tea, fish, and many others. We additionally import plenty of merchandise. Bangladesh is just not economically autonomous. Commerce is extra standard than manufacturing. Commerce requires fixed communication with international firms. Many firms concerned in buying and selling should use English to cope with strangers. Suppose that an organization is negotiating with China, which isn't an English talking nation. Then the corporate should contact the Chinese language firm in English. If we take a look at the non-public sector job gives, we will simply discover that almost all job gives are printed in English. Even most non-public sector job gives printed in Bengali newspapers are printed in English. Virtually all non-public jobs point out that candidates should grasp English. Virtually all public restricted firms publish their annual stories in English. A few of these firms produce a Bengali model of their annual report, however the focus is at all times on English. It's subsequently clear that English is the dominant language in our financial actions.

Comparability of English with Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali in Bangladesh:

Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali are the non secular languages ​​of Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists. Even uneducated folks attempt to study these languages ​​as a result of they're thought-about holy. If we examine the training of English with these languages, we notice that we connect extra significance to English. For instance, the schooling charges of an English teaching middle are a lot greater than these of an Arab teaching middle. English non-public lecturers get Four to five instances more cash than Arabic non-public lecturers (Huzur). Thus, though Arabic has a non secular feeling, English is taken into account extra essential as a result of it has financial advantages.

Comparability of English international languages ​​corresponding to French, German and Farsi:

French and German have grow to be extremely popular for financial causes in our nation. Studying these languages ​​helps us to extend our possibilities of getting a job on the UN. Studying French can be helpful for getting immigration to Canada. There are additionally good amenities for studying these languages ​​on the College of Dhaka, the Alliance Française and the Goethe Institute. The English Institute of the North-South College lately launched the French course. Throughout the Muslim reign, Farsi was the language of the royal administration and the Bangladesh court docket. At the moment, a pupil can take a Farsi course for one semester by merely paying tk. 250 on the Iranian Cultural Middle, however few college students are desirous about studying Farsi, French and German. Alternatively, a whole lot of scholars every year take the TOEFL and IELTS exams in English.

It's clear from the image above that the standing of English is far greater than that of international languages ​​corresponding to German, French and Farsi. We can't deny the truth that if an individual is presented in English, he can earn cash in any a part of Bangladesh, but when an individual is presented in French, German or Farsi, nearly no alternative to make cash utilizing his expertise. these languages.


In keeping with the dialogue that has taken place thus far, English is undoubtedly the second language of Bangladesh, however this actuality is just not mirrored in our structure. Formally, Bangladesh is just not often known as an ALS nation to the skin world. The federal government ought to subsequently declare Bangladesh ASL immediately. We study English not as a result of we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We study English by necessity. If Bangladesh is said an SLA nation and the English language is given a transparent standing within the structure, it is going to replicate not solely the fact, however it is going to additionally assist us internationally. As we speak, Bangladesh is desperately attempting to draw international traders. Earlier than an organization involves Bangladesh to discover funding alternatives, one of many key areas to search for could be the supply of a pool of English graduates. Additionally they count on regular staff to realize a primary understanding of the English language. If we grow to be an ESL nation, then these international firms in search of to study Bangladesh will probably be reassured in regards to the sturdy presence of the English language on this nation.

The identical image is there in regards to the training sector. Many Bangladeshi college students want to proceed their research in developed international locations corresponding to the US, the UK, Canada and Australia. If Bangladesh is said an ALS nation, these college students will profit as a result of the colleges of those international locations will then have the concept that English has a particular which means in Bangladesh.

I subsequently suggest to the Authorities of Bangladesh that English be declared the second language of the nation by amending the structure.


Bangladesh is the one nation on the earth the place folks have sacrificed their lives for the language. As we speak, the historic linguistic motion of 1952 is internationally acknowledged because the Worldwide Mom Language Day. It's true that our individuals are moved by their language, Bangla. Nevertheless, it is usually true that our folks have grow to be determined to grow to be proficient in English. Because of this, there are greater than fifty non-public universities in Bangladesh. If North-South provided BAA and laptop programs in Bengali, they'd not even get 10% of the variety of college students they at present have. It's now time to place an finish to the good contradiction surrounding the language concern and to declare Bangladesh as an ALS nation to our benefit.


1. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BHASHACINTA PROSONGO O PORIDHI. Dhaka: Bangla

Academy, 2002.

2. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BANGLADESHER RASHTRABHASHA. Dhaka: Bangla

Academy, 2002.


BHASHATATTA. Dhaka: Bangla Academy, 1996.

4. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BANGLA PARIBHASHA: ITIHAS O SAMASYA. Dhaka: Bangla

Academy, 2002.

Atlantis And Lemuria - Misplaced Continents, Or A Dreamland Of Eden?

Atlantis and Lemuria - misplaced continents or dreamland of Eden?


You ask - Atlantis? What lies behind this mysterious phrase? This misplaced legendary world does it actually exist? Why was he coated with so many phrases, fancy veils, half-truths, assumptions, assumptions, or maybe truths? Or is it merely a fabrication that conjures up poets, occultists and fewer standard scientists? It's exhausting to say ...

Atlantis has obtained numerous consideration and plenty of phrases have been written about it; delusions and misinformation too. Nonetheless, not solely laymen, but additionally some passionate scientists say that this fabulous world actually existed right here a very long time in the past.

Atlantis and his supernatural destruction convey a number of theories to start; Nonetheless, earlier than we begin speaking about it, let's study the primary traditionally recorded be aware in regards to the existence of this unknown world.

The primary report on Atlantis was written by Plato - a well-known and trusted Greek thinker - who, in his works, Critian (and Timeus too) described in Critias' phrases a narrative about Solon, a thinker and poet renamed sixth century BC had discovered in Egypt by some pray that there had lengthy been a rustic known as Atlantis, which had been destroyed. A fraction of Plato's phrases: On this island of Atlantis, a strong and noteworthy dynasty of kings reigned over all the island, in addition to many different islands and elements of the continent; furthermore, he managed, within the strait, Libya as much as the borders of Egypt and Europe as much as Tyrrhenia (Italy) ...

Translation by Sir Desmond Lee, first printed in 1965, Penguin Classics.

Based on different tales, the gods divided the world for themselves. Poseidon was certainly one of them and he had Atlantis. Some individuals have been already dwelling on the island and certainly one of them was Evenor, whose partner was Leucippe; that they had a daughter - Cleito. Cleito grew up, she was increasingly stunning and Poseidon fell in love together with her. When Cleito's dad and mom died, the almighty God of the Sea took care of her and she or he was about to present start to 5 pairs of twins - males, twin brothers, who obtained the Atlantis to dominate it. The oldest was Atlas. And these dominated and dominated in a fantastic empire ...

The Egyptians advised Solon that Atlantis had been destroyed 9,000 years in the past. So, if we add 600 years (earlier than Christ) to the time of Solon's life and a couple of,000 years, from the start of Christ till at this time, we will likely be 11,600 years previous.

There are different writers who've written about Atlantis, however the first and most well-known supply is that of Plato. The opposite supply is a Greek thinker, Diodorusa Siculus, who lived 90 to 20 years earlier than Christ and who wrote (Bibliotheca Historica) that some thousand years in the past, the Phoenicians had traveled to a really massive island . The Atlanteans would have "civilized most individuals". As you may see, there are different historic descriptions of Atlantis, amongst which we are able to additionally discover that of Aristotle, who additionally wrote on a big island within the Atlantic Ocean . As well as, the destruction of Atlantis has been cited by historians similar to Marcellinus, Timagenus, Theopompos ...

We additionally cope with the written data of the Aztecs, the Mayans and never solely these. There are written paperwork similar to Chilam Balam, Dresden Codex, Popol Vuh, Codex Cortesianus - all of them point out that the existence of such superior civilization was attainable. If we have a look at the options of much less distant historical past, Atlantis has at all times attracted poets, writers, but additionally occultists or vacationers / adventurers. One in all these authors was Francis Bacon, who in 1626 had already written a really attention-grabbing work - New Atlantis, which - in his time - even exceeded Verne. Bacon describes right here how a sinking crew found extraordinarily superior individuals on an island within the Atlantic Ocean. The detainees on this island may "report sounds", they may "exhibit" it and "copy" it; they used "engines" for all sorts of actions; in addition they had messengers that they despatched to go to the nations of the world and collect info.

The occult and the New Age additionally collected info from the well-known Russian clairvoyant Blavatska, who claimed that the inhabitants of Atlantis have been solely a unique race on Earth and that they have been the one ones to be discovered on this planet. that they had superb psychological talents. Nonetheless, being corrupt, they changed into dangerous wizards and started a conflict that led to finish destruction.

Theories about Atlantis

Theories about Atlantis are primarily based mostly on two pillows:


It's a fable.

It is a "bubble" produced from the autumn of the Minon civilization and the destruction of the island of Thera, identified at this time as Santorini, 1640 years earlier than Christ by a volcanic explosion within the area of small volcanic islands of the Egey Sea, about 75 km. southeast of the primary Greek land.

If we neglect the primary two factors and assume that Atlantis really exists, then we are able to have a look at different theories:


Atlantis elected within the Atlantic Ocean.

Within the community of sciences, pseudoscience and quackery, different classes seem, similar to a concept in regards to the existence of an archipelago between Cyprus and Syria, however the above-mentioned theories are the most typical theories. Let's have a look at some details about the attainable existence of Atlantis in variations of opinion and at a theoretical stage with out obligation to show or disprove something.

If we depend on the speculation of the Mediterranean Sea and the civilization of Minon, we'll acquire a easy conclusion. Nonetheless, if we aren't able to cease at this level, we are able to additionally point out theories on an island or perhaps a land within the Atlantic Ocean.

Theories about Atlantis within the Atlantic Ocean

Ignatius Donnelly, a US Congressman from Minnesota, was one of many first fashionable Atlantis researchers to have a long-standing curiosity in learning historical paperwork and sources. on Atlantis. In 1882 he wrote a ebook titled Atlantis the Antediluvian. World and in 1883, Ragnarok, the age of fireside and gravel. Donnelly has made the legend of Atlantis a success with Individuals. He quotes Plato in his books; he speaks of myths and theories of the biblical flood; it doesn't bypass Native Individuals both and makes an attempt to doc the similarities between Indian languages ​​and sure European languages.

The variety of authors has elevated, together with these within the skilled sectors. For instance, James Churchward has written a number of books during which he paperwork historical scripts. William Niven, a geologist, tries to show that he discovered related stone tablets in Mexico. These authors and different authors help the speculation that Atlantis was launched into the Atlantic Ocean as a sophisticated civilization that colonized the continent of North and South America, but additionally the Europe, Africa and Asia.

Anthropologist George Hunt Williamson has executed his personal analysis on Atlantis and Lemuria. The creator writes how the Inca elders led him to an previous manuscript of the Andes; he data the destruction of Atlantis and Mu. They might have had superior expertise.

Proof or arguments

In case of "proofs", it's a must to watch out as a result of the topic Atlantis is an effective technique to earn a living. However along with false proof, there are additionally dependable arguments. Allow us to suppose.

The map of Piri Reis dates from about 1513.

Columbus, the person who found America as the primary particular person talked about in historic paperwork, studied older maps, together with the map of Admiral Piri Reis, courting from 1513. Nicely that the American continent was found in 1492, these maps characterize the world of kind that goes towards the information of present historic science. The Piri Reis map additionally comprises Antarctic photographs about 300 years earlier than its discovery - the contours are fairly exact.

Not solely does this make us "dumb". Professor Hapgood has contacted the US Air Drive to substantiate the thesis that the terrestrial areas of the Piri Reis map representing Antarctica usually are not below the ice. He obtained a constructive response.

I want to imagine ... However most opinions on this topic are a manipulative product that helps their authors to maintain a "good job" or institute them in a sure hierarchy of the world. The Italian scientist Diego Cuoghi paperwork some particulars - already on the time of the Turkish Admiral, new adventurers have been discovering South America; certainly one of them was Amerigo Vespucci (in 1499); Nonetheless, there are additionally maps dated earlier than 1513 and much more correct than these of Piri Reis if we give attention to Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico - these areas are fairly inaccurate on the aforementioned map. Writers like Dänikin or Professor Hapgood merely ignore it.

We are able to additionally point out a map of Juan de la Cosa (1500) or Cantino (1502). If we put Antarctis or "undiscovered" islands within the profile, this cannot be thought-about as a proof, as a result of, for instance, the Waldseemüller map from 1507 photographs originates from the again of India - China going to Sri Lanka. .. So, lets say that the lacking a part of Brazil on the map of Piri simply didn't exist!

And what in regards to the exact contours of Antarctic? I feel that Hapgood, von Dänikan and different writers arrogantly underestimate the pondering and intelligence of the traditional peoples they usually forgot that the Egyptians have been additionally excellent sailors.

This suggests that if the library of Alexandria was destroyed because the richest supply of knowledge we ever had - any good Egyptian Pharaoh - a visionary may simply help a fantastic expedition and it's attainable that D & D Former sailors knew that Antarctic was exhausted. Having no details about it doesn't essentially imply that historical peoples haven't explored America or Antarctic within the historical previous; it doesn't imply both that they should develop into "extraterrestrials", as usually proven by the creativeness of present writers, as they appear to suppose that historical peoples weren't even in a position to to suppose.

Archaeological discoveries

There are a lot of attention-grabbing discoveries, however revealing the main points of every of them will not be needed for the time being. To be transient, solely embrace part of it to present an thought of ​​what the adepts consider the concept of ​​a misplaced world.

North America

In Could 1969, someplace across the Bimini Islands, archaeologists Mansen Valentain and Dimitri Rebikov found vestiges of a constructing with a depth of 30 meters within the sea. These have been massive items of stone - they they match completely into one another; the burden of 1 was about 25 tons. Scientists on the College of Miami have concluded that the stays date again to 7,000 or 10,000 years BC, which implies that they're older than the Mayan pyramids.

The expedition of Dr. Manson Valentine found close to the Bimini Islands of different ruins on the backside of the ocean. In 1982, these ruins have been photographed. They appear very very similar to one of many oldest websites ever found - Lake Tiahuanaco in Bolivia.

South America

Many explorers and adventurers have tried to search out El Dorado - an imaginary place wealthy in immunities. Some archaeologists additionally declare that South America is the oldest cradle of humanity. A very long time in the past, the Tiahuanaco empire had succeeded right here and it's thought that it already existed 12,000 years earlier than Christ. The stays of a giant metropolis, Tiahuanaco, are nonetheless at this time on the shores of Lake Titicaca. Many expeditions have explored this area. Scientists surprise how inmates of the time may transfer heavy stones (about 130 tons) and put them aspect by aspect. The Tiahuanaco civilization cedes its start to the predecessors of the Indians of South America.

Different sources say that the Phoenicians have visited South America; The Austrian professor Ludwig Schwennhagen, who would have discovered their inscriptions within the Amazon jungle, is certainly one of them. The French researcher Apollinaire Frot traveled via Brazilian areas similar to Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Bahia and mentioned he had discovered such a lot of inscriptions that he may write books about them. A British explorer, Percy Fawcett, has confirmed it independently.


The Amazon is little explored when it comes to present information; its dimension is just somewhat smaller than that of the present United States. The story of Colonel Percy Harrison Fawcett, a member of the Royal Geographical Society of London, could be very well-known.

Within the early 20th century, this adventurer fascinated with archeology determined to discover the "misplaced worlds" within the forests of South America. On the premise of agreements with the Bolivian and Brazilian governments, he turned a member of a number of expeditions and, from the 12 months 1911, he gave lectures in London on the "misplaced cities" of which he advised the story. existence someplace on the border between Bolivia and Brazil. Percy Fawcett was a real fanatic of mythological Atlantis and he believed that South America, Brazil, was colonized by this civilization in our historical historical past.

His disappearance has given rise to a number of hypotheses, certainly one of them being that Indians may seize him and that he's nonetheless alive. The BBC has produced a number of tv paperwork and has additionally contacted Fawcett's household to search out out extra, however the household has refused to reveal delicate details about Fawcett, justifying that individuals are not but prepared to listen to it. .

Doc 512

As we already knew, Fawcett had the concept of ​​excavating historical civilizations and he additionally visited many archives. He discovered a doc within the Instituto Historico e Geographico Brasileriro in Rio de Janeiro relating to the Portuguese expedition of 1753, the place it's written: "... a big, hidden and really historical metropolis was discovered with out detainees ... ".

Nonetheless, the tales about his disappearance are exaggerated. It isn't an issue to vanish in such a jungle, even at this time, and not using a hint. Some imagine that he lives in these misplaced cities and that he has everlasting life ...


The thought of ​​Lemuria or Mu appeared for the primary time within the works of Augustus Le Plongeon, traveler and author who created his personal analysis.

The Lemuria ideas are additional based mostly on the truth that Permian-like geological constructions are present in South India, South Africa and Australia. Some geologists have subsequently advised a concept of the attainable existence of the traditional continent and proposed the title of Lemuria, who survived.

This misplaced continent was later popularized by James Churchward (1852-1936) in a sequence of books starting with The Kids of Mu (1931), The Misplaced Continent Mu (1933) and The Sacred Symbols of Mu (1935). The books at all times have devotees ...


In fact, each cheap man will reject Dänikin's concepts - we could not have to see an "astronaut" in each previous drawing. However we should not go within the route of rejecting with hate any concept that has slipped off our monocultural line. To begin with, open pondering is essential for greedy or denying something that seems as a reality or a lie.

Baltic Complexity

Virtually every little thing we are saying or do is strongly influenced by tradition.

Because the beginning of the Baltic republics, it was frequent data, politically right and romantic, to categorise Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania as if, just like the Benelux international locations, that they had many similarities due to their pressured annexation to the Soviet Union. The dominant Western media, which frequently provides a myopic and distorted view of the interior dynamics of every of those cultures and societies, have inspired this distortion.

Furthermore, there isn't any have to make clear this panorama, the actual fact that many inmates in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have additionally subscribed to this outdated notion of cultural similarities, which, admittedly, could have been true a technology in the past, century advances, it shortly turns into fairly out of date. For the sake of brevity, this text will concentrate on Lithuania and Latvia, provided that Estonia has its personal linguistic classification (nearer to the Finnish language), its financial progress and radically completely different insurance policies that distinction completely along with his Baltic dad and mom. This is likely one of the the explanation why, when it comes to absolute prosperity, telecommunications, innovation, European convergence and infrastructure, the inventors of Skype in euro-stonia far exceed their neighbors. The actual fact is that for the reason that starting of the post-Soviet transformation course of, these three international locations have chosen divergent paths of improvement and financial reform. Subsequently, in 2011, it's inaccurate and deceptive to treat the Baltic trio as a single financial and political area.

With a view to current an identical variations and similarities, allow us to set up the overall traits, the latest historical past and the situation of those nations. All of them belong to the EU, to NATO and gained their independence 20 years in the past by escaping a decaying Soviet financial system that mixed the worst types of financial life with arbitrary, authoritarian political regulation. and sometimes brutal. a political construction that celebrates the occupier's supremacy over the busy. The Baltic states all have coasts on the Baltic Sea - in north-central Europe, alongside the western border of the Russian Federation and Belarus. Throughout the tumultuous transition interval (1990), these international locations confronted social and financial modifications that, after a lot struggling, elevated their way of life.

As talked about earlier, though geographical approximations lead international locations to be conventionally thought of as one and the identical entity, the diploma of distinction that separates them is surprisingly massive when it comes to ethnicity, language, historic improvement and faith. After studying a latest interview given by Dalia Krulyte, Ambassador of Lithuania to Latvia, this presumption grew to become extra evident within the thoughts of this author and, as such, she determined to touch upon a few of the much less apparent variations between these. two Baltic cultures.

First, the proof; Though the sound and pronunciation of Lithuanian and Latvian sounds fairly completely different for foreigners, linguistic roots have many issues in frequent. An applicable analogy could be that these languages ​​are as related as Spanish and Portuguese. Secondly, each international locations are a part of the Schengen space of ​​the European Union. Each have skilled a dramatic monetary disaster over the past two years and have applied painful austerity measures to enhance their monetary prospects. The 2 international locations cooperate amicably to realize their international coverage aims and, even when they set up shortly, the 2 international locations nonetheless have a enough inventory of oil and fuel. Soviet infrastructure, together with residential blocks. Equally, the feminine inhabitants is increased than the male inhabitants in each international locations. As well as, they've necessary enterprise relationships whereas posting an analogous time. As well as, the 2 international locations have an unhealthy and complicated dependence on Russian power markets whereas presenting related flat landscapes of their geography. As well as, younger folks (and increasingly adults) in each international locations most likely have the very best English expertise within the EU.

Alternatively, Lithuania has a decidedly Polish affect on its territory, whereas Latvia is clearly Russian. In distinction to Estonia and Latvia, which have adopted moderately harsh and seemingly unhindered citizenship legal guidelines for post-war immigrants as a result of demographic imbalances, Lithuania has adopted an inclusive coverage providing citizenship to all residents of the Lithuanian state in 1989; rejecting the opportunity of excluding immigrants from the political neighborhood till, as within the case of Latvia, they've in some way "proved their loyalty" due to the truth that thus far, ethnic Russians in Latvia are thought of "non-citizens" or have "international standing" however, for essentially the most half, are perceived as a hostile risk by massive segments of the Latvian inhabitants .

This case has earned Latvia the worldwide condemnation of the Authorities of the Russian Federation, the Council of Europe and several other worldwide human rights organizations. On account of this modern actuality, there's a persistent distrust and palpable ethnic pressure (reflecting deeper historic trauma) within the streets of Riga (between Latvians and Russians) than on the sidewalks of Vilnius and its ethnic minorities. On this respect and judging by interethnic relations of a private nature (for instance, with mates, acquaintances, family, and many others.), the institutional integration of minorities in Lithuania will be thought of as extra superior than its personal. Latvian counterpart.

A remaining level on this difficulty is that, in line with the Migration Integration Coverage Index of 2010 (MIPEX, endorsed by the Commissioner for Residence Affairs, Cecilia Malmstrom), produced by the British Council and the Migration Coverage Group, Latvia ranks final among the many 31 international locations examined. whereas Lithuania is forward of Malta, Slovakia and Cyprus. This demographic composition and these contrasting political approaches have clearly marked the character of those two Baltic peoples. Whereas Latvia is taking an more and more conflictual method in the direction of its ethnic minority, Lithuania appears to be tackling this drawback in a extra pragmatic and tolerant manner.

Lithuania's GDP per capita is increased than that of Latvia. Latvia skilled the worst recession in Europe after 2008, with a GDP decline estimated at 25%. In contrast to his southern neighbor, he determined to hunt a rescue from the IMF and the EU. Latvia's financial system (significantly its casual sector) appears to be extra depending on the Russian black market than within the case of Lithuania. On the organized crime entrance, Lithuania is and has at all times been the nation most affected by trafficking in human beings.

Whereas Latvians observe a stricter sense of punctuality, Lithuanians take a extra relaxed view of time, leisure, festivities and friendship with strangers. Each international locations endure from a mind drain to Western Europe and, if there may be actually a non-existent Latvian migration to Lithuania, Migros Lithuanian research and works in Riga and its respective universities . In response to the EU Innovation Scoreboard (2010), Latvia is the final nation out of the 27 Member States, with Lithuania forward of Latvia and Bulgaria. Though Riga is the biggest capital of the Baltic states, Lithuania has the biggest inhabitants and the biggest space. Whereas pleasant and useful folks will be present in each international locations, there appears to be an elevated sense of fatalism and pessimism in Latvia among the many normal inhabitants.

If we flip to different actions, we additionally see better variations. Latvian nationwide sport is hockey. The second faith of Lithuania is basketball. Whereas the 2 international locations have a resolutely pro-American stance of their international coverage (joint army co-operation inspired by profitable US administrations), Vilnius sees its personal manner with a stronger footprint (for instance, the Prague snobby of the Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaite on the Obama Administration in 2010, his veiled criticism of NATO's protection plans and his dedication to have interaction constructively with Minsk) than does Riga. On the time of becoming a member of the EU in 2004, the 2 international locations have been a paradise for international capital (particularly Scandinavian), the place they supplied a comparatively low company tax fee, an inexpensive labor pressure and really educated, in addition to a military of customers longing for every little thing. a "westernized" style, from denims to cellphones.

There's a drawback wherein the notion of similarity turns into very false, not solely on the a part of foreigners, but additionally on that of the indigenous inhabitants of those Baltic international locations; the query of faith. Latvia observes a extra Protestant method to morality, whereas Lithuania follows a broader sense of the Catholic which means of proper and incorrect, but additionally of guilt. On the floor, Lithuania studies low charges of atheism. Its neighbor Latvia, which shares an analogous geography and parallel historical past over the past 200 years, has a better fee of worldwide comparisons. The most recent version of the International Values ​​Survey for Latvia and Lithuania has highlighted better religiosity in Lithuania. Total, Lithuania appears to be a extra non secular nation than its northern neighbors and but nationalist tendencies appear to be sinking deeper and deeper into Latvia.

The cultural dimensions of enterprise life additionally reveal contrasts between these two nations. In inspecting, the pioneering work performed by the influential Dutch social psychologist and anthropologist, Geert Hofstede, and the exceptional interpretations and social researches of his collaborators reveal that Baltic cultural values ​​"present a better diploma much like the Nordic international locations than they're in". to Russia or Poland "which show that these transitional conditions with altering values ​​wherein" the educated girl who climbs is able to take energy. "The change of mentality as a jet engine in altering factors of view cultural ".

Such outcomes have led to remarks corresponding to "the Baltic peoples have a Slavic coronary heart and a Scandinavian head" by some Hofstede associates, like Dr. Maik Huettinger. Subsequently, although they put on related conventional costumes in people dances, their conventional meals are very completely different. Cepelinai for Lithuanians and Karbonade for Latvians.

On a linguistic degree, Baltic languages ​​are the oldest languages ​​on this planet and are nearer to the Slavic, Germanic and Indo-Iranian languages ​​(in that order) than different branches of the Proto ancestral pressure. Baltic household. As well as, Baltic languages ​​have a number of phrases borrowed from Slavic languages ​​(eg Russian and Polish) but additionally from the German language. Regardless of false perceptions and unusual historic stereotypes, contacts between Balts and Slavs of the Proto-Indo-European period have by no means been damaged. As such, it's comprehensible that Baltic and Slavic languages ​​truly share extra linguistic options than all different Indo-European languages ​​mixed. Though all of that is probably, at any time when a Lithuanian and a Latvian meet, they might most likely converse in English as a result of it has been mentioned that Latvians and Estonians usually regarded Lithuanians as "Baltic Italians" and with cause.

The formation of a tradition is a deeply advanced and very course of, the Baltics, like all of us, are too nuanced and too humane to be described intimately in any such article. The approximation is the very best we will do, and we hope it has been performed.

Bear in mind, they're each Baltic, however they don't seem to be the identical.

Go to us at: